Crossbridge Energy A/S runs the refinery in Fredericia and the associated activities. The refinery produces approx. 35 % of the total Danish fuel consumption and has a vision to become CO₂ neutral. Crossbridge Energy will follow the pathway in the energy transition and will continue the development of green hydrogen, advanced biofuels and co-processing.

Contribution to Sludge2Fuel

Our role in the Sludge2fuel project is utilization of the biocrude oil. Crossbridge Energy A/S is project lead on the Sludge2Fuel project and is seeking new ways of producing greener fuels for transportation.

The key advantages of our technology are:

  • Utilization of biocrude in existing refinery plant
  • Production to consumer market
  • Distribution of products to market.


Circlia Nordic ApS offers a unique implementation of the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology that is ready to handle the decentral nature of biomass. Research has shown that HTL is one of the most energy efficient solutions for handling wet biomass streams.


Contribution to Sludge2Fuel

Our role in the Sludge2fuel project is to deliver the HTL plant design.

The key advantages of our technology are:


  • A cost efficient and compact plant design with a footprint of just two 40ft containers capable of treating 4000t of dry matter per year.
  • High efficiency thanks to novel heat exchangers and pumps that enable a heat recovery of upwards of 90%.
  • The possibility to treat low dry matter feedstocks through a novel biomass assisted filtration technology.
  • Scalable and modular plant design. Larger capacity needs can cost efficiently be met by adding additional units.

Aarhus University (AU) was founded in 1928 and hosts 38,000 students, 1,800 PhD students and 8,000 employees, of whom 4,500 are researchers. AU has a strong international reputation across the entire research spectrum and is in the absolute world elite in several research areas. The university ranks among the world’s 10 best universities, founded within the last 100 years and has a long tradition of partnerships with top research institutions and university networks around the world.


Contribution to Sludge2Fuel

AU’s role in the Sludge2Fuel project is to ensure the technological development is at the forefront of the academic knowledge in the HTL area. Through AU’s worldwide leading position in HTL research and development we will contribute to the project in following areas:


  • Management of the HTL process water reintegration to the wastewater treatment plant. Evaluating the effect of the HTL process water on biological processes such as COD removal, de-nitrification, P removal etc. this is supported by our state-of-the-art bioreactors and analytical techniques for water analysis such as HPLC-MS
  • Recovery and utilization of the HTL soldi phase for phosphorus recycling towards nutrient applications. AU will provide analysis, extraction and purification solutions to produce struvite amongst other more novel and high value applications.
  • Assessment of the overall techno-economics and life-cycle emissions of the Sludge2Fuel process. AU will carry out detailed process modelling to calculate minimum fuels selling prices and green house gas emissions of the entire process chain.


Krüger is specialised within the field of drinking water, process water, municipal and industrial wastewater, sludge, sewage, soil remediation, groundwater as well as the optimization, regulation and supervision of wastewater treatment plants. Krüger acts as consultant, contractor as well as supplier of equipment, services and solutions

The core competencies include everything required to design, build, operate, maintain, control, regulate, supervise and upgrade municipal and industrial water- and wastewater treatment plants and sewerage systems.

Krüger is owned by Veolia, the world’s largest environmental group, with more than 175,000 employees worldwide.



Contribution to Sludge2fuel


Krüger’s role in the Sludge2Fuel project is primarily to ensure the integration of the HTL-plant with the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Fredericia including:

  • Handling of possible biological inhibition from HTL process water returned to the biological wastewater treatment process at Fredericia WWTP
  • Adaption of existing sludge treatment system to accompany the HTL-plant
  • Mass balance to document operation scenarios


We also participate in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the Sludge2Fuel project, and also how the solid residue from the HTL-process can be utilized as an opportunity for circular economy. The solid residue is especially interesting in regards to recovery of phosphorus (P).




Fredericia Spildevand og Energi A/S (FRSE) operates Denmark’s largest public industrial treatment plant. Annually, more than 10 mil. m3 of wastewater from approx. 17,000 customers and some of Denmark’s largest industrial companies is treated. FRSE strategy consists of 4 pillars (environment, economy, cooperation, and energy). With the project, FRSE will investigate the technical and economic possibilities of replacing our older sludge management system, based on digestion of wastewater sludge for subsequent electricity and heat production, to an economically viable HTL system that can help solve a significant climate challenge through the production of transport fuel.


Contribution to Sludge2Fuel


FRSE will and host the HTL demonstration plant. Further we are responsible for the integration of HTL and wastewater treatment at FRSE (WP2) and the communication and dissemination activities (WP7)


Get in touch

Feel free to contact us for more information about the Sludge2Fuel project.
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